African Archaeology (Cambridge World Archaeology (Paperback))
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David Phillipson presents an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity through European colonization in this revised and expanded edition of his original work. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa in their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, Central and Southern Africa. His book demonstrates the relevance of archaeological research to understanding contemporary Africa and stresses the continent's contribution to the cultural heritage of humankind.
years ago. The footprints are interpreted as those of two or three uprightwalking hominids, one smaller than the others. sediments with which we are here concerned are designated the Shungura and Usno Formations in the north, the Koobi Fora Formation in the east and the Nachukui Formation in the west; they are each separated into various members by horizons of consolidated volcanic debris known as tuffs, from which numerous potassium/argon age-determinations have been obtained, 36 afric an
represented on the later sites: the two observations may well be interconnected. By this time the Bed-I lake had largely dried up and an open grassland environment is indicated. It has been argued that the majority of the hominid sites at Olduvai represent dry-season encampments (Speth and Davis 1976; see also Blumenschine and Masao 1991). The Olduvai sequence is summarised in Figure 28. The earliest hominid fossils from Olduvai have been noted in chapter 2. Specimens attributed to Paranthropus
eponymous stone-tool industry retains its old name. This book is the result of four decades’ study and involvement in African archaeology. The staff of Cambridge University Press have been unfailingly helpful; an anonymous reader whom they engaged has made many suggestions for the improvement of the text. Numerous friends and colleagues have contributed to my knowledge and understanding although, needless to say, I have not always followed their advice and all errors and omissions are my sole
Qadan, also shows considerable inter-site variation in the comparative frequencies of the various microlithic tool types. This evidently reﬂects the varied activities carried out by the populations who ﬁshed, hunted wild cattle and other large ungulates, and also made considerable use of wild plant foods, including cereals. This last food source is indicated by the presence on Qadan sites of large numbers of grindstones and also by the fact that many of the microliths bear on their edges the
observed ranges of variation frequently overlap, the ranges noted in a prehistoric population may show a close degree of ﬁt with those of a particular recent group; the afﬁnities of isolated individuals are correspondingly difﬁcult to determine (cf. A. W. F. Edwards 2003). Bearing these many hazards in mind, it is worthwhile to survey the views that have been proposed for the afﬁnities of ﬁnal Pleistocene/early Holocene African populations. In the Maghreb the Oranian hunter-gatherers were